step 1), fewer other-gender friends (Hdos), and higher anxiety in mixed-gender situations (Hstep three). Prior studies have not found any consistent moderating effect of student gender on the differences related to single-sex schooling, and we expected the school differences to be similar in boys and girls (Hcuatro). Nevertheless, we included student gender as a potential moderator as most prior studies did [4,13]. Across the two samples, we predicted that differences between single-sex and coeducational school students ple as the school differences may attenuate when all students were exposed to similar mixed-gender environments after graduation (H5). Also, we hypothesized that the potential school difference in mixed-gender anxiety was mediated by gender salience (Hsix) and mixed-gender friendships (H7).